Primer to help physicians improve immunization rates, especially in minority populations. The primer includes tools to help physicians ensure that patients are up-to-date with their vaccinations. Studies have shown that many individuals do not receive the vaccinations they need. Immunization gaps are seen mostly in adolescents and adults as well as with racial and ethnic minorities. Adolescent and adult immunization rates average less than 70 percent nationally. Although childhood immunization rates are very high, African American and Latino children are less likely to receive the recommended vaccinations than white children.